Maurizio Abbatino is a former Italian criminal, one of the original bosses of the Banda della Magliana, an Italian criminal organization based in the city of Rome, particularly active throughout the late s until the early s. He became a pentito , a collaborator with justice after his arrest in Wiki as never seen before with photo galleries, discover something new today. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards.
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In the 7th—6th centuries BC th. Italian lira The lira was the currency of Italy between and and of the Albanian Kingdom between and Between and , the Italian lira was a national subunit of the euro. However, cash payments could be made in lira only, as euro notes were not yet available; the lira was the currency of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy between and The term originates from the value of a pound weight of high purity silver and as such is a direct cognate of the British pound sterling.
Until the Second World War , it was subdivided into centesimi , which translates to "hundredths" or "cents"; the lira was established at This was a direct continuation of the Sardinian lira. Other currencies replaced by the Italian lira included the Lombardy-Venetia pound , the Two Sicilies piastra , the Tuscan fiorino, the Papal States scudo and the Parman lira. In , Italy formed part of the Latin Monetary Union in which the lira was set as equal to, among others, the French and Swiss francs: in fact, in various Gallo-Italic languages in north-western Italy, the lira was outright called "franc".
This practice has ended with the introduction of the euro in World War I resulted in prices rising severalfold in Italy. In , the lira was pegged to the U. In , the "official" rate was This rate was maintained until the end of the Bretton Woods System in the early s. Several episodes of high inflation followed; the lira was the official unit of currency in Italy until January 1, , when it was replaced by the euro.
Old lira denominated currency ceased to be legal tender on February 28, ; the conversion rate is 1, All lira banknotes in use before the introduction of the euro, all post-World War II coins, were exchanged by the Bank of Italy up to 6 December Italy's central bank pledged to redeem Italian coins and banknotes until 29 February , but this was brought forward to 6 December All except the 10 centesimi bore a portrait of Napoleon , with the denominations below 1 lira showing a radiate crown and the higher denominations, a shield representing the various constituent territories of the Kingdom.
In , coins were minted in Florence , Milan and Turin in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 50 centesimi, 1 lira, 2, 5, 10 and 20 lire, with the lowest four in copper, the highest two in gold and the remainder in silver. Minting switched to Rome in the s.
Apart from the introduction in of cupro-nickel centesimi coins and of nickel centesimi pieces in , the coinage remained unaltered until the First World War. In , with a purchase power of the lira reduced to one fifth of that of , the production of all earlier coin types except for the nickel 20 centesimi halted, smaller, copper 5- and centesimi and nickel centesimi coins were introduced, followed by nickel 1- and 2-lira pieces in and , respectively.
In , silver 5- and lira coins were introduced, equal in size and composition to the earlier 1- and 2-lira coins. Silver lira coins were added in In , the last substantial issue of silver coins was made, whilst, in , moves to reduce the cost of the coinage led to copper being replaced by aluminium bronze and nickel by stainless steel. All issuance of coinage came to a halt in In the AM-lira was issued, in circulation in Italy after the landing in Sicily on the night between 9 and 10 July After , the AM-lira ceased to be the currency of employment and was used along with normal notes, until June 3, Frank Coppola was born in Partinico , Italy in In he settled in Detroit , he worked as a laborer and as a seller of fruit and vegetables, before entering the mob.
He was known as Frank Three Fingers because he lacked two, the left ring finger and little finger after his fingers had slipped inside the door of a safe during a robbery and had to be cut off with a knife before the police arrived, he was a major drug trafficker with strong ties to the Detroit Partnership with Angelo Meli and the St. His activities soon led him to be on the FBI list of unwanted criminals. In he was sent back to Italy, he settled near Rome , where he invested all the money accumulated, in real estate.
In Italy, he dealt with clean business, however according to the judicial authorities, he was at the center of large drug trafficking operations.
Banda della Comasina
In the last period of life because of poor health, Coppola was hospitalized for over a year in an Aprilia clinic. He died on April 26, Sicilian Mafia The Sicilian Mafia known as the Mafia and referred to by its own members as Cosa Nostra, is a Mafia-terrorist-type organized crime syndicate originating in Sicily, Italy. It is a loose association of criminal groups that share a common organisational structure and code of conduct; the basic group is known as "clan", or cosca.
Each family claims sovereignty over a territory a town or village or a neighbourhood of a larger city, in which it operates its rackets , its members call themselves "men of honour", although the public refers to them as mafiosi. The Mafia's core activities are protection racketeering , the arbitration of disputes between criminals, the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions. Following waves of emigration, the Mafia has spread to other countries such as Canada and the United States ; the word mafia originated in Sicily.
The Sicilian adjective mafiusu translates to mean "swagger," but can be translated as "boldness, bravado". In reference to a man, mafiusu in 19th century Sicily was ambiguous, signifying a bully, arrogant but fearless and proud, according to scholar Diego Gambetta. In reference to a woman, the feminine-form adjective "mafiusa" means beautiful and attractive. The Sicilian word mafie refers to the caves near Trapani and Marsala , which were used as hiding places for refugees and criminals. Sicily was once an Islamic emirate, therefore mafia might have Arabic roots.
In Islamic law, Jizya , is the yearly tax imposed on non-Muslims residing in Muslim lands, and people who pay it are "exempted" from prosecution. The play had great success throughout Italy. Soon after, the use of the term "mafia" began appearing in the Italian state's early reports on the phenomenon; the word made its first official appearance in in a report by the prefect of Palermo Filippo Antonio Gualterio.
The term mafia has become a generic term for any organized criminal network with similar structure and interests. Giovanni Falcone , the anti-Mafia judge murdered by the Mafia in , objected to the conflation of the term "Mafia" with organized crime in general: While there was a time when people were reluctant to pronounce the word "Mafia" I am no longer willing to accept the habit of speaking of the Mafia in descriptive and all-inclusive terms that make it possible to stack up phenomena that are indeed related to the field of organised crime but that have little or nothing in common with the Mafia.
According to Mafia turncoats, the real name of the Mafia is "Cosa Nostra". Senate Committee on Government Operations in , he revealed. In , Mafia turncoat Tommaso Buscetta revealed to anti-mafia magistrate Giovanni Falcone that the term was used by the Sicilian Mafia, as well. Buscetta dismissed the word "mafia" as a mere literary creation. Mafiosi introduce known members to each other as belonging to cosa nostra or la stessa cosa, meaning "he is the same thing as you — a mafioso. Mafiosi are known among themselves as "men of honour" or " men of respect ".
It is difficult to define the single function or goal of the phenomenon of the Mafia. Until the early s, mafia was considered a unique Sicilian cultural attitude and form of power, excluding any corporate or organisational dimension; some used it as a defensive attempt to render the Mafia benign and romantic — not a criminal association, but the sum of Sicilian values that outsiders will never understand.
Leopoldo Franchetti was an Italian deputy who travelled to Sicily and who wrote one of the first authoritative reports on the mafia in , he saw the Mafia as an "industry of violence" and described the designation of the term "mafia": the term mafia found a class of violent criminals ready and waiting for a name to define them, given their special character and importance in Sicilian society, they had the right to a different name from that defining.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links. Related Images. YouTube Videos. View of Nuoro in winter from Monte Ortobene. Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,, while its metropolitan area has a population of 3,, Ruins of the Emperor's palace in Mediolanum.
Roman ruins in Milan: the Columns of San Lorenzo. The Basilica di Sant'Ambrogio , it is not only a monument of the early Christian and medieval epoch, but also the second church for the importance of the city of Milan. The biscione eating a child on the Visconti coat of arms. Veneto is one of the 20 regions of Italy.
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Its population is about five million, ranking fifth in Italy. The region's capital is Venice. Lake Alleghe near Belluno. Tre Cime di Lavaredo. The Piave River. The Venetian Lagoon at sunset. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. The League of Nations assembly, held in Geneva , Switzerland , Benito Mussolini inspecting troops during the Italo-Ethiopian War , The bombing of Guernica in , during the Spanish Civil War , sparked fears abroad Europe that the next war would be based on bombing of cities with very high civilian casualties.
Verrazzano 's voyage of Lower East Side , circa Catania is the second largest city of Sicily after Palermo located on the east coast facing the Ionian Sea. Zingaro Natural Reserve. The lira was the currency of Italy between and and of the Albanian Kingdom between and Between and , the Italian lira was officially a national subunit of the euro.
Vittorio Emanuele II. FAO 's celebration. Carmagnola , countryside near the river Po. Rice fields in the province of Vercelli , eastern Piedmont. Salvatore Riina. Via Palestro massacre in Milan in They read: "You did not kill them: their ideas walk on our legs". He served as 38th Prime Minister of Italy, from to , and then from to Ironically, the superintendent in charge of monuments for the city, was called Meli, the same name as Antonino Meli, the 68 year old judge from Caltanissetta , appointed by Rome in as chief prosecutor in Palermo to head up the anti-Mafia Co-ordinating Group, replacing Falcone and effectively putting back efforts to defeat the Mafia by years.
Also, the stonemason hired to create the granite street signs for the square was called Liggio! Maybe degrees of separation, as conceived by Hungarian author Frigyes Karinthy in ; coincidence, an alignment of random points, the long arm of fate, kismet, chance; all sorts of threads run through the story of Luciano Leggio, linking together a tapestry of energy rather than fabric. It had been a long and winding road for him and the Sicilian Mafia, a road that had taken him and his criminal clan from a rustic-based enterprise into a tangled urban world of deceit, treachery and mayhem on a scale never seen before in Italy.
Its members could do anything they wanted, safe in the unconditional knowledge that they were protected by their own special coda. It was a short step from indifference to the law towards indifference to the state. The Little King of Corleone may also have qualified for a unique if somewhat macabre appellation, as one of the greatest mass murderer of his time. His tally was probably somewhere between one to five hundred, many at his own hand, but most at his direction.
It was reported that the townspeople of Corleone were so delighted that he had at last been brought down, they re-named a street after the date he was captured Aprile. Their successor as the supreme boss of Cosa Nostra is supposed to be Matteo Messina Denaro, a man of forty-eight. And like Leggio, he suffers from a permanent and debilitating disease, although his is myopia. He is the capo of Castelvetrano, the same place where the bandit Salvatore Giuliano was murdered in Nothing is set in concrete however, and time will tell if he is in fact the man who has taken over from Provenzana.
His story is still to be told. How she and her parents and sisters went with the procession to the Rocca Busambra, on December 14th , and on that cold and misty morning, had witnessed his remains being reclaimed from the deep cave that was used as a burial ground by the local Mafia. Every night for 57 years, Pina said she had offered a prayer for him. Her sister Salvatrice developed heart problems, and another sister Concetta, six months pregnant, lost her baby because of the stress they went through when their brother disappeared.
The whole family was torn apart, and never put together again. Her parents and all her five siblings died without being able to bury their brother and son, and in due course the remains of Placido Rizzotto disappeared into the labyrinth of the Italian bureaucracy. In , Francis Forgione, president of the anti-Mafia Commission, promised there would be a major government investigation to find and return the box. It was thought to be either stored somewhere in the courthouse building in Palermo or at the Court of Cassation in Rome. Things grind exceedingly slow in Italian bureaucracy. In August , human remains were found in a sinkhole on the Rocca Busambra.
The tests however, were negative, as disclosed towards the end of November It has not gone unnoticed that the bodies of Michele Navarra, Luciano Leggio and other Mafiosi who contributed to the murder of the young trade unionist have been buried with full civil and religious accord, whilst their young victim has still not been laid to rest. In Placido Rizzotto we see the true face of the victims of the Sicilian Mafia, and their families, representing the thousands of similar stories which lie untold across a hundred years of enforced violence, generated in order to satisfy the ambitions of those who worshipped false myths and pagan gods and destroyed everything that stood in their way.
Men, who Corrado Stajano claimed, were a ghastly tangle of terror, vice, brutality and death. Luciano Leggio came into the world a baby, innocent as all are, until these changes occurred in him and turned him into the epitome of malevolence and abomination. Mark Twain believed everyone is a moon, and has a dark side which he never shows to anyone. Aristotle spoke of hamartia , the tragic flaw of man.
It is hard to find the verbs or adjectives that do justice to the nature of this man: evil, controlling, frightening, unpredictable, pernicious, deadly, capricious, cruel, predatory, aberrant, mendacious are just some that come to mind. They hint at his nature, but hardly scratch the surface of the person. He killed for fun, as a game, out of sheer malice, according to Antonino Calderone. Maybe this is all we really need to know about La Primula Rossa.
If we deny the Mafia their existence they vanish like a nightmare. It seems more than likely, they never will. They have always been and will always be. We are often amazed by the incredible quantity of details that besiege the memories of the men of Cosa Nostra. But when one lives, as they do, in expectation of the worst, one is forced to gather even the smallest crumbs. Nothing is useless. Nothing is a product of chance. The certainty of the closeness of death — in a moment, a week, a year — infects them with a constant sense of the utter precariousness of their lives.
Could it be that Leggio lived by his own, unethical, self-interested code of behaviour because he knew how circumscribed his life was? Surrounded by men who would kill each other without cause or conscience, all operating within an element characterised by random or formulated sudden violence.
Banda della Comasina - WikiVividly
Men who, as Renate Siebert pointed out, operated in an activity obsessed by death, and were in contrast to the hagiographic image they liked to portray-rebels, negative heroes and defenders of a historical tradition- instead, contrivers of violence and assassination, which spoke more of cowardice and manipulation than any patina of honour. Whatever it was that tripped him over from peasant boy to peasant boy-killer, Luciano Leggio created a journey for himself that could only ever lead to one of two destinations: death or imprisonment.
I leave the final words to the late, and great, English author, Norman Lewis who wrote one of the finest books ever on the Mafia, called The Honoured Society. He had been in Sicily during World War Two as part of the military occupying forces, and returned in the s to travel across the island and research this social criminal phenomena that was evolving, yet again in the post-war years.
Another phoenix arising, just like it had before, following the assault on its seemingly invincible being by Cesare Mori in the late s. He talks about a small town near Palermo, but his observations could easily apply to Corleone or any of another hundred small places across western Sicily.
Without realizing it, they have killed each other as far back as anyone can remember, and still kill each other, not so much out of bloodthirsty sentiment, but from economic necessity.
There has never been enough to go around. These are of some of the sources I used in preparing the story: Bibliography Alongi, Giuseppe. El Maffia. Palermo: Sellerio Editor. Arlachi, Pino. La mafia imprenditrice. Bologna: Men of Dishonour. New York: Bardoni, Avril. Man of Respect. Milan: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, spa. Biagi, Enzo. Milan: Mondadoris Blok, Anton. The Mafia of a Sicilian Village. New York: Harper and Row, Dalla Chiesa, C. Michele Navarra e la mafia del corleonese. Palermo: La Zisa, Dolci, Danilo. Turin: Franscesco De Silva, Falcone, Giovanni.
Cose di Cosa Nostra. Milano: Rizzoli, Follain, John. A Dishonoured Society. Gambetta, Diego.
La mafia siciliana. Turin: Hess, Henner. Rome, Bari: Laterrza and Figli Spa, Kermoal, Jacques and Bartolomeri, Martine. Paris: Actes Sud Lampedusa, Giuseppe Tomasi di. Il gattopardo. Milan: Feltrinelli, Lewis, Norman. The Honoured Society. New York: Putnam, Lodato, Saverio. Dieci anni di Mafia. Milan: Rizzoli, Lupo, Salvatore. Storia della Mafia. Rome: Donzelli, Story of the Mafia. New York: Columbia University Press Nese, Marco.
Nel Segno della Mafia: Rizzoli Pantaleone, Michele. Turin: Einaudi, Poma, Rosario.